The genus Hammarbya has only one species Hammarbya paludosa (Bog Orchid). First gave Linnaeus plant name Ophrys paludosa. The scientific name Hammarbya paludosa got it by Kuntze in 1891 as a tribute to
Linnaeus and his hometown Hammarby. Bog Orchid is spread in Eurasia and North America.
Bog Orchid – Hammarbya paludosa
Synonym: Malaxis paludosa.
Bog Orchid, White Adder’s Mouth and Fen Orchid (the latter probably expired in Norway) have the leaves base bulbs (pseudobulbs) situated in the moss, and these three species are the only ones in Europe with pseudobulbar which are common for the epiphytic orchids in tropics.
Some scientists think that the Bog Orchid not have larger deviations than other species of the genus Malaxis and that Bog Orchid therefore should be transferred to the genus Malaxis. In Norway’s Bog Orchid scattered and rare in the lowlands and valleys north to Troms. It is little lime demanding, often grow extremely humid in sphagnum and is a very small plant that is hard to catch sight of. Bog Orchid has two small leaves pointing up from the plant basis, and it is from 3 to 12 cm high. Bog Orchid also propagates asexual using small gemmae sitting in order on the leave tip. Down in the moss we find 2-3 pseudobulbs which is 4-8 mm large and sits on a rhizome with distance 1-2 cm. Stems are hairless and thin as a needle.
The flowers are greenish-yellow, can be numerous and sits on a small, narrow inflorescence. The flowers are very small and lip pointing upwards. You would think that such a small plant is very primitive because lip pointing upwards, but why evolution has led to the lip is twisted 360 degrees is unknown. The plant is likely to pollinate of small insects which may number many of the marsh.
Bog orchid is not protected under the Nature Diversity Act, but is now on the Norwegian Red List.